출장샵☺예약금없는출장샵ケ안중 모텔〔출장몸매최고〕┏[군산 터미널 모텔]♗일본 보빨➵오피┴출장 보증금⇃출장 사기◆전화 tumblr

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

오산출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

출장샵☃24시출장샵↺안중 모텔〔안산 조건〕►[출장 카톡]┺콜걸추천⇪모텔출장마사지샵❉부산 서면 모텔⇃찌라시 썰╂모텔 찌라시

The governments of more than 190 nations 동두천출장미인아가씨 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

출장샵♥24시출장샵⇢안중 모텔〔천안 출장〕☣[천안 조건 만남]π미시출장안마⇪경마 예상 지존 대회┼대전 여관◀해피 오렌지 출장 샵ェ야동 실제

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

출장샵♐24시출장샵✡안중 모텔〔부산 출장 서비스〕↽[수원 출장]♂다방 모텔║출장전화번호▦모텔 찌라시↧tumblr 모텔★신림 모텔

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 부여출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

출장샵♬예약금없는출장샵➠안중 모텔〔수원 출장〕◣[토요 경마]♠익산 모텔 가격↕모텔 출장↽출장서비스╃부산 모텔웃모텔 찌라시

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 천안부산역 모텔 가격 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

출장샵↽출장부르는법━안중 모텔〔대구 모텔 아가씨〕✪[콜녀]☇해운대 아가씨ヨ콜걸추천┲천안 조건ψ여인숙 여자⇛김해 모텔 추천

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 봉화출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

출장샵신림동 여관

  • 서울사상 출장
  • 의정부 대딸방
  • 출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    출장샵♖24시출장샵♘안중 모텔〔울산 삼산동 출장〕┽[tumblr 모텔]0신천 모텔 가격☪출장서비스囍모텔출장마사지샵ⓥ출장 카톡⇩안마

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 평창출장 만남 카톡 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 목포출장마사지 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    의왕출장안마
    용인카톡 출장 합천출장안마 보령익산 모텔 가격
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 문경출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    출장샵☱예약금없는출장샵☼안중 모텔〔콜걸추천〕☎[속초 모텔 추천]★출장마사지╬여자 부르는 가격➚주안 여관✄해운대 아가씨☠출장오쓰피걸

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 서울 출장 만남 대행 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    출장샵↺예약금없는출장샵☳안중 모텔〔출장샵예약포항〕➸[오피스텔 아가씨]♭대전 모텔 추천➧일베 모텔═토요 경마⇚천안 출장 대행╍퇴폐

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 광명출장안마 .

    광주야동 실제
    거창신림동 여관 광주출장안마 시흥의정부 모텔 가격
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    출장샵⇦출장부르는법◊안중 모텔〔탑 클래스〕▨[오피]✍포항 아가씨◐안산 조건 만남♣전주 모텔 가격⇞출장샵안내╬동대구 모텔

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 부평출장안마 .

    출장샵☃예약☜안중 모텔〔전화 tumblr〕┽[다방 모텔]ア성인 에이미➳출장업계위♀송탄 여관☈대구 커플 동영상↽콜걸추천

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 봉화출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 과천모텔 여자 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    출장샵キ예약금없는출장샵ユ안중 모텔〔출장오피〕➽[일본 보빨]▒해피 오렌지 출장 샵①모텔 찌라시↯마사지0호텔 출장↢전주 여관

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    출장샵⊙출장부르는법↔안중 모텔〔구미 모텔 추천〕⇣[용암동 모텔]エ평택 모텔 가격▩의정부 대딸방テav 에이미♞불광 여관»카톡

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 함안예약금 없는 출장 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 증평출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 제주출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 서천흥출장안마 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 파주출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    출장샵╖24시출장샵♞안중 모텔〔포항 터미널 모텔〕➶[해운대 출장]☢국노 토렌트◊안중 모텔⇣콜걸출장안마↕미시출장안마♧소라넷 이벤트

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 속초출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 목포출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 괴산출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    출장샵❁예약♦안중 모텔〔안산 대딸방〕╠ [신천 모텔 추천]⇪목포 여관⇪사당⇞출장맛사지フ콜걸만남♪의정부 모텔 가격

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    청도여인숙 여자
    동두천출장안마 양양출장마사지샵 증평출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    출장샵◑예약금없는출장샵♮안중 모텔〔출장만족보장〕♡[천안 만남]☶여관 아가씨⇢부산 출장 서비스◦송탄 여관♜출장 카톡◙의정부 대딸방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.출장샵부산 모텔 추천◈출장 조건❀[속초 모텔 추천]전주 여관➡출장만남↖태국 에스코트ヤ부산 여관 가격ト단양출장안마출장부르는법전지역출장마사지샵ワ속초 모텔 추천♥《국노》동대구역 모텔£원룸 출장➴경마 시간↸대구 동대구역 모텔▥출장샵의정부출장아가씨군산 여관↕대전 모텔 가격♫〖대구 모텔 아가씨〗흥출장안마♖천안 립↞마산 모텔 추천✑야동 실제☭콜걸출장안마❥카톡 출장╦〔천안 조건 만남〕광주 터미널 근처 모텔➚출장오쓰피걸ε발안 모텔⊙울산 삼산동 출장χ출장업계위♪전주 모텔 가격☳〖출장샵후기〗에이미 성인☃부산 모텔 출장♪출장 선입금”부산 모텔 아가씨⇤출장여대생╥모텔 티켓μ〔선입금 없는 출장 만남〕출장마사지샵┵서울 여인숙 가격チ삼산동 출장╟안산 조건 만남⇠24시출장샵완주대구 모텔예약금없는출장샵포항 아가씨♮티켓 썰▧[사상 출장]모텔 전화サ천안 퇴폐┡동대구 모텔♠방콕 에스코트↬출장샵출장샵음성출장안마만남 카톡마송 여관여주 모텔 추천송탄 여관출장샵모텔출장ヌ대구 모텔 아가씨♬「부산 모텔 출장」포이 펫 카지노 롤링☛부산 서면 출장▶일산 모텔↢모텔 전화╜신안대구 모텔 아가씨

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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