신안출장샵☼24시출장샵➹신안서울 마사지〔신안장유 안마방〕↤[신안성남 마사지]↶신안태국 아로마 마사지★신안가슴커지는 마사지✌신안일본 가슴 마사지♝신안수유 마사지↭신안안마방 초이스 토렌트

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

신안출장샵⇋24시출장샵↶신안서울 마사지〔신안광주 안마방 추천〕✲[신안대전 안마방 후기]♖신안스포츠마사지╦신안김천 안마방♤신안다방 모텔☑신안체코 마사지┯신안사각턱 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 과천최음제 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

신안출장샵►예약금없는출장샵╖신안서울 마사지〔신안동남아 안마방〕◑[신안대구 모텔 가격]☐신안출장오쓰피걸♚신안안마방 파워배드◕신안미금 안마방☄신안신림 안마방ヘ신안출장 사기

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

신안출장샵↺예약금없는출장샵▷신안서울 마사지〔신안강동구 마사지〕☵[신안모란 안마방]❤신안용인 수지 마사지◎신안만남☇신안오일 마사지セ신안근육 마사지❦신안천안 조건

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 목포출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

신안출장샵☠예약♪신안서울 마사지〔신안마사지 도구〕◆[신안미아 안마방]┍신안양곡 안마방✑신안고주파 마사지↳신안창원 출장 숙소♮신안천안 유흥§신안정자 안마방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 충주안마방 무한샷 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

신안출장샵♔예약マ신안서울 마사지〔신안수내역 마사지〕☣[신안영통 안마방]►신안남양주 안마방♧신안전주 모텔 추천┲신안마사지 카페♚신안안마방 똥꼬▶신안위례 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

신안출장샵신안기흥구청 마사지

  • 고흥신사역 안마방
  • 신안신데렐라 안마방
  • 신안출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    신안출장샵☭24시출장샵☢신안서울 마사지〔신안러시아 마사지〕♪[신안출장대행]↕신안안마방 부산☱신안부천 만남➽신안서산 마사지☞신안인계동 안마방◦신안카톡 출장 만남

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 오산마사지 레전드 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 목포출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    파주사당역 안마방 포항출장안마 양평양재 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    신안출장샵┗출장부르는법┩신안서울 마사지〔신안안마방 오르가즘〕╯[신안fc2 한국 마사지]➽신안유부녀 마사지♯신안24시간 마사지◢신안서혜부 마사지 효능↞신안통영 안마방↘신안서울 출장안마

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 창녕안마방 에이즈 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    신안출장샵マ예약▒신안서울 마사지〔신안레이크호텔 마사지〕ェ[신안대전 모텔 가격]┰신안비키니 마사지▷신안하복대 안마방 신안잠실 마사지╈신안출장╟신안스포츠 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

    계룡일본 가슴 마사지
    합천안마방 동창 카지노사이트 증평남양주 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    신안출장샵┾예약금없는출장샵━신안서울 마사지〔신안안중 마사지〕◊[신안서산시 안마방]♥신안일본 해수욕장 마사지⇩신안콜 걸╀신안안마방 전화번호 저장☂신안안마방 잠➠신안울산 안마방 추천

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. jasonboy.xyz .

    신안출장샵┨출장부르는법✲신안서울 마사지〔신안포항 마사지 후기〕»[신안성장판 마사지]╠ 신안앙헬레스 마사지╬ 신안아쿠아 마사지 젤┚신안동대구역 모텔➸신안안마방 시간ク신안창원 안마방 후기

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 대전출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 논산강남 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    신안출장샵★예약✍신안서울 마사지〔신안마사지 의자〕☪[신안존슨즈 베이비 오일 마사지]✏신안국산_신작_안마방♐신안여성 전신 마사지◄신안모텔출장마사지샵♮신안남포동 안마방↹신안안마방 몰카

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    신안출장샵♮예약▣신안서울 마사지〔신안일산 모텔〕▀[신안여성 전신 마사지]⇌신안제주시 안마방╁신안팔자주름 마사지♘신안심장 마사지ⓔ신안미금 안마방╖신안다낭 에덴 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 창원방이동 여관 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 목포출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 대구출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 광주안마방 애무 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 진주출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    신안출장샵♤24시출장샵╃신안서울 마사지〔신안만남〕◘[신안용현동 마사지]❦신안신천 모텔♠신안감성마사지란┏신안출장태국마사지テ신안춘천 안마방❧신안모란 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 천안출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 창원출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    신안출장샵•예약금없는출장샵♯신안서울 마사지〔신안박시연 마사지〕☠[신안서울 여인숙 가격]╉신안찌라시 썰♥신안타이 마사지 꿀팁▶신안안마방 대딸θ신안얼굴 작아지는 마사지◘신안마사지 수면실

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    충주최음 마사지
    울산출장샵 영광안마방 몰카 대전출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    신안출장샵▷예약금없는출장샵ヤ신안서울 마사지〔신안고관절 마사지〕┱[신안마사지 알바]▧신안젖몸살 마사지┓신안동탄 안마방⇡신안라페 안마방⇇신안강동 안마방╯신안포이 펫 카지노 롤링

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.신안출장샵신안안마방 수면○신안무한샷 안마방☷[신안림프 마사지]신안야탑 안마방⇪신안어스파╥신안독산동 마사지♘신안청량리 안마방☠부산출장안마24시출장샵신안서양 안마방⇩신안일산 모텔 추천☋《신안여성 전용 마사지 알바》신안안마방 번호╠ 신안사당역 안마방❧신안역출장안마┳신안출장▪신안출장샵계룡순천 마사지신안중국전통마사지 팁◄신안온천장 안마방○〖신안국노 torrent〗신안안마방 나이대┚신안천안 카페♩신안출장안마추천╝신안구미 아로마 마사지ⓥ신안상록수 안마방☣신안세종시 안마방セ〔신안계산동 안마방〕신안평택 여관☃신안안마방 안마╈신안아쿠아 마사지 젤⇥신안후두 마사지⇌신안지행 안마방♥신안청주 안마방⊙〖신안마사지 자격증 종류〗신안대구 안마방 후기ⓥ신안양산 젤리 마사지❈신안안마방 초보☊신안안마방 도촬┗신안오산 안마방“신안청도 마사지►〔신안안마방 용어〕신안안마방 에이즈チ신안스웨디시 마사지 정의⇛신안마사지 서비스▨신안남친이랑 마사지↬24시출장샵진해안마방 에이스24시출장샵신안광교 마사지◑신안오송 마사지╚[신안위례 마사지]신안출장걸⇚신안당진 안마방⇃신안동암 마사지0신안노원 마사지♜신안출장샵신안출장샵서울출장안마신안오창 마사지신안대전 마사지 추천신안싸인볼 마사지신안안마방 청룡열차신안출장샵신안콜걸┝신안오피스 걸█「신안태국 마사지 torrent」신안공주 안마방┃신안상하이 마사지✌신안여자 부르는 가격⇗신안까치산 마사지⇩고양안마방 하드

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.